We have tackled tons of nutritional topics on cycling before. Here we discuss more of them. Do take note that the results of some studies conflict with the results of others. A metanalysis is required to consolidate the findings of these studies but as of now, actual practice among cyclists vary remarkably.
Superior endurance performance with ingestion of multiple transportable carbohydrates. The aim of this study done in 2007 was to investigate the effect of ingesting a glucose plus fructose drink compared with a glucose-only drink (both delivering carbohydrate at a rate of 1.8 g.min(-1)) and a water placebo on endurance performance. METHODS: Eight male trained cyclistswere recruited (age 32 +/- 7 yr, weight 84.4 +/- 6.9 kg, .VO(2max) 64.7 +/- 3.9 mL.kg(-1).min(-1), Wmax 364 +/- 31 W). Subjects ingested either a water placebo (P), a glucose (G)-only beverage (1.8 g.min(-1)), or a glucose and fructose (GF) beverage in a 2:1 ratio (1.8 g.min(-1)) during 120 min of cycling exercise at 55% Wmax followed by a time trial in which subjects had to complete a set amount of work as quickly as possible (approximately 1 h). Every 15 min, expired gases were analyzed and blood samples were collected.
RESULTS: Ingestion of GF resulted in an 8% quicker time to completion during the time trial (4022 s) compared with G (3641 s) and a 19% improvement compared with W (3367 s). Total carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation was not different between GF (2.54 +/- 0.25 g.min(-1)) and G (2.50 g.min(-1)), suggesting that GF led to a sparing of endogenous CHO stores, because GF has been shown to have a greater exogenous CHO oxidation than G.
CONCLUSION: Ingestion of GF led to an 8% improvement in cycling time-trial performance compared with ingestion of G.
Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance. The ergogenic effects of caffeine are well documented. Research has yet to examine any psychological contribution to this effect. A study was done in 2008 with the aim of exploring the psychological and pharmacological effects of caffeine in laboratory cycling performance.
METHOD: Fourteen male competitive cyclists performed 14 40-km time trials (eight experimental interspersed with six baseline). The experimental phase consisted of two trials for each of four experimental conditions: informed caffeine/received caffeine, informed no treatment/received caffeine, informed caffeine/received placebo, and informed no treatment/received no treatment. Conditions were nonrandomized. ANOVA was used to estimate main effects and interactions for mean values of power, heart rate, blood lactate, and maximal oxygen uptake. Probabilistic inferences for mean power were based on a smallest worthwhile change of 1.5%.
RESULTS: Relative to baseline, a very likely beneficial main effect of receiving caffeine (3.5%; 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5%), and a possibly beneficial main effect of being informed of caffeine (0.7%; -0.7 to 2.1%) were observed. A substantial interaction between belief and pharmacology indicated that caffeine exerted a greater effect on performance in conditions when subjects were informed that they had not ingested it, whereas belief exerted a greater influence on performance in the absence of caffeine (2.6%; -0.7 to 5.9%). A possibly harmful negative placebo (nocebo) effect was observed when subjects were correctly informed that they had ingested no caffeine (-1.9%; -4.1 to 0.3%). No clinically significant changes relative to baseline were observed in mean heart rate. Clear and substantial increases in blood lactate were evident after receipt of caffeine. Data for mean oxygen uptake were unclear.
CONCLUSION: Our data support the ergogenic efficacy of caffeine but suggest that both positive and negative expectations impact performance.
Combination of sago and soy-protein supplementation during endurance cycling exercise and subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity. The purpose of the study done in 2010 was to investigate whether a combination of sago and soy protein ingested during moderate-intensity cycling exercise can improve subsequent high-intensity endurance capacity compared with a carbohydrate in the form of sago and with a placebo.
The participants were 8 male recreational cyclists with age, weight, and VO2max of 21.5 +/- 1.1 yr, 63.3 +/- 2.4 kg, and 39.9 +/- 1.1 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), respectively. The design of the study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover comprising 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% VO2max followed by a time-to-exhaustion ride at 90% VO2max. The sago feeding provided 60 g of carbohydrate, and the sago-soy combination provided 52.5 g of carbohydrate and 15 g of protein, both at 20-min intervals during exercise.
Times to exhaustion for the placebo, sago, and sago-soy supplementations were 4.09 +/- 1.28, 5.49 +/- 1.20, and 7.53 +/- 2.02 min, respectively. Sago-soy supplementation increased endurance by 84% (44-140%; p < .001) and by 37% (15-63%; p < .05) relative to placebo and sago, respectively. The plasma insulin response was elevated above that with placebo during sago and sago-soy supplementations.
The authors conclude that a combination of sago and soy protein can delay fatigue during high-intensity cycling.